مقایسه‎ «معلمی‎کردن» نومعلمان مدارس ابتدایی: آیا نوع دانشگاه محل تحصیل مهم است؟

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 آموزش و پرورش مراغه

2 گروه آموزش ابتدایی، پردیس نسیبه، دانشگاه فرهنگیان

3 گروه مطالعات اجتماعی دانشگاه فرهنگیان

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی مقایسه‎ای معلمی‎کردن سه گروه از نومعلمان مدارس ابتدائی ایران اختصاص دارد که در شهرستان مراغه در سال تحصیلی 97-1396 فعالیت می‎کردند. این معلمان از سه طریق «تحصیل در دوره چهار ساله تربیت معلم در دانشگاه فرهنگیان»، «تحصیل در سایر دانشگاههای کشور و شرکت در استخدام پیمانی و گذراندن دوره یکساله تربیت معلم» و «داشتن سه سال فعالیت تدریس در مدرسه به صورت موقت» وارد خدمت معلمی شده بودند.
پرسش پژوهش این بود که آیا روش ورود به حرفه معلمی و نوع دانشگاه محل تحصیل بر معلمی کردن تاثیر دارد یا خیر؟ رویکرد حاکم بر پژوهش، رویکرد کمی بود. برای گردآوری داده‎های لازم از «پرسشنامه» استفاده شد. جامعه پژوهش را معلمان آموزش ابتدایی تشکیل می‎دادند که از میان آنها، ابتدا معلمان شهرستان مراغه انتخاب شدند و سپس نمونه‎ای به تعداد 97 نفر برای کسب داده‎ها انتخاب شد. از طریق نمونه‎گیری متناسب با حجم، نمونه مربوط به هر گروه انتخاب و پرسشنامه در محل کار آنان توزیع و با مراجعه حضوری، دریافت شد. تحلیل داده‎های حاصل با بهره‎گیری از فراوانی و درصد و میانگین نمرات انجام و برای مقایسه گروه ها، آزمون تحلیل واریانس، انجام گرفت.
نتایج حاصل نشان داد «معلمی‎کردن» نومعلمان واردشده با شیوه‎های متفاوت به مدارس ابتدایی، فاقد تفاوت معنی‎دار است. یعنی نومعلمانی که دوره چهارساله یا دوره یکساله تربیت معلم را سپری کرده‎اند همانند معلمانی معلمی می‎کنند که دوره‎های رسمی تربیت معلم را سپری نکرده‎اند. این بدان معناست که تاسیس دانشگاه خاص تربیت معلم، نتوانسته است دستاوردی بیشتر از دانشگاههای دیگر داشته باشد که آموزش رشته مربوط را برعهده دارند.
پژوهش به شیوه کمی ممکن است با برخی محدودیت‎های مربوط به جامعیت و اعتبار مواجه باشد. علیرغم برخی محدودیت‎های این پژوهش، آنچه حاصل شده نوعی تردید در کارایی دانشگاههای خاص تربیت معلم را آشکار می‎کن. این دانشگاهها در ایران، دانشجویان خود را بعد ار اتمام تحصیلات دوره متوسطه، انتخاب و پس از استخدام در آموزش و پرورش آنهات را آموزش می دهد. بنابراین، این نوع آموزش با نوعی انتخاب زودهنگام شغل همراه است و پرداخت کمک هزینه تحصیل همراه است. این هر دو سبب افزایش هزینه‎های تحصیل می‎‌شود. بنابراین، این پرسش مطرح است که آیا همچنان می‎توان از دوره چهارساله تربیت معلم در دانشگاه فرهنگیان با استخدام از ابتدای تحصیل، دفاع کرد؟ آیا دانشگاه فرهنگیان دارای عملکردی اثربخش بوده است؟ داده های میدانی نشان می دهد که موفقیت دوره چهار ساله تربیت معلم برای کسب شایستگی شغلی فعالیت در آموزش ابتدایی، برای دفاع از آن کافی نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of Teachers "teaching" in primary schools: Is the type of university important?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Aghakhani 1
  • Nematollah Mousapour 2
  • yosef najafi 3
1 teacher
2 Elementary Education Department, Nasibeh Faculty, Farhangian University
3 University of Farhangian
چکیده [English]

This article is conducted as a "comparative study" of the teaching of three groups of new teachers in Iranian primary schools who were active in the city of Maragheh in the academic year of 2017-2018. These teachers were employed in three ways: 1) studied in the four-year teacher education course at teacher training university; 2) studied in other universities and participated in contract employment and passing the one-year teacher education course and; 3) having three years of teaching activity in the school temporarily.
The research question was whether the method of entering the teaching profession and the type of university where person study has an effect on teaching. The research approach was quantitative. A "questionnaire" was used to collect the necessary data. The research population included primary education teachers, among whom, first, the teachers of Maragheh city were selected and then a sample of 97 people was selected to obtain the data. Through stratified sampling method, the sample for each group was selected and the questionnaire was distributed in their workplace and received in person. The data analysis was performed using frequency, percentage and mean scores and to compare groups, analysis of variance test was performed.
The results showed that "teaching" newcomers to primary schools in different ways did not make a significant difference. That is, new-teachers who have completed a four-year or one-year teacher education course were the same as teachers who have not completed formal teacher education courses. This means that the establishment of a special teacher education university has not been able to achieve more than other universities that teach the relevant field.
The quantitative research may face some limitations on comprehensiveness and validity. Despite some limitations of this research, what has been achieved reveals a kind of skepticism about the efficiency of special teacher education universities. In Iran, these universities select their students after completing their secondary education and would employ them in educational system. Therefore, this type of training is associated with an early choice of job and payment of tuition fees. Both increase tuition fees. Therefore, the question is whether it is still possible to defend the four-year teacher education course at teacher training university by employing from the beginning of education? Has teacher training university performed effectively? The obtained field data show that the success of a four-year teacher education course is not enough to earn a job in primary education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "NewTeacher"
  • "Teaching Methods
  • Impelementation"
  • "Teacher absorbed methods"
  • "University of Farhangian effective"
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