تاریخ تحولات «آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی» و عناصر اصلی برنامه‌درسی آن

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مطالعات برنامه ‌درسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی درسی دانشگاه فرهنگیان

چکیده

مقالۀ حاضر به تحلیل مفهوم آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی می‌پردازد، دیدگاه‌های نظریه‌پرداران برجستۀ آن را معرفی و عناصر اصلی برنامه‌درسی را در آن شناسایی و تحلیل می‌کند. در این مقاله پس از ارائۀ گزارشی کوتاه از تاریخچۀ آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی، مفاهیم کلیدی آن از جمله «ریاضیات» و «یادگیری» تعریف و دیدگاه‌ها و آرای فلسفی و آموزشی سه نظریه‌پرداز برجسته در این حوزه که عبارتند از اسکوزموزه، گاتستاین و فرنکنستاین ارائه می‌شود. سپس برخی از عناصر برنامه‌درسی در آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی از جمله اهداف و نقش معلم و دانش‌آموز به اختصار و محتوا و روش‌های آموزش به تفصیل تحلیل می‌شود. برای این تحلیل، داده‌های لازم از آثار نظریه‌پردازان این حوزه استخراج و به روش استنتاجی تجزیه و تحلیل می‌شود. در آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی، دانش‌آموزان فعالانه در طرح و حل مسائلی مشارکت می‌کنند که برای خود و جامعه‌شان مسئله‌برانگیز است. بنابراین در آموزش ریاضیات انتقادی تلاش بر این است تا در کنار آموزش مفاهیم اساسی ریاضیات، دانش‌آموزان با مسائل محیط پیرامونشان آشنا شده، نقادانه دربارۀ آنها به بحث و گفت‌وشنود بنشینند و آگاهانه برای حل آنها اقدام کنند.

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