ریشه‌های تفکر برنامه درسی متمرکز: واکاوی دغدغه‌های سیاسی و اجتماعی نخستین ناظران آموزشی و نقش آن در پیدایش حوزه مطالعاتی برنامه‌درسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

هدف این مقاله تاریخی واکاوی نقش فعالیت‌های ناظران آموزشی ابتدای قرن بیستم در پیدایش حوزه برنامه درسی و ترویج اندیشه برنامه درسی متمرکز است. روش این مقاله استناد به اسناد و آثار نخستین ناظران آموزشی و برنامه‌ریزان درسی است. این مطالعه نشان می‌دهد فکر برنامه درسی متمرکز با هدف محدودسازی اختیارات مدارس و به عنوان ابزاری برای نظارت مطرح شد. هریس با اندیشه نظارت مبتنی بر کتاب درسی، بابیت با اندیشه برنامه درسی مبتنی بر استانداردها، و راگ با تدوین کتاب راهنمای معلمان، به دنبال اثرگذاری مستقیم بر آموزش در کلاس‌های درس بودند. اگر چه اندیشمندانی نظیر جان دیویی و بـوید بـــود کوشیدند رویکرد مردم‌سالارانه‌ای را که مبتنی بر اصول روان‌شناختی نیز بود در نظریه و عمل آموزش نهادینه کنند اما ناظرانی نظیر هریس، بابیت و چارترز با بهره‌گیری از تحقیقات علم‌گرایانه و قدرت اجرایی توانستند ذینفعان آموزش را در برابر ذهنیت دیوان‌سالارانه و نظارتی و نیز در برابر اندیشه برنامه درسی متمرکز و یکپارچه متقاعد کنند. پیدایش حوزه مطالعاتی برنامه درسی در واقع شروع تفکر برنامه درسی متمرکز و با نظریه مردم‌سالاری اهماهنگ نبود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Roots of Centralized Curriculum: The Political and Social Concerns of Early Educational Supervisors and the Emergence of Curriculum Studies

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Ahmad Madani
University of Kasha
چکیده [English]

The aim of this historical inquiry is to explore the fundamental efforts of early superintends in the emergence of the field of curriculum studies and the theory of centralized curriculum. The method of this enquiry is referring to first-hand references and works of early curriculum developers and supervisors.  The main focus of this historical research is on the conceptualizations and attempts of Franklin Bobbitt and Harold Rugg. Referring to the documents showed that the theory of centralized curriculum was explained as a systematic tool for narrowing schools’ authority and as a tool for inspecting and supervising. Several experts and executives followed this with different approaches. Harris proposed a supervisory approach based on developing textbooks, Babbitt clarified the idea of an activity curriculum that is based on standards, and Rugg immersed in compilation of textbooks and teachers’ guidebooks as a democratic method for improving the quality of education in schools and classrooms. The invaluable struggles of philosophers like John Dewey and Boyd Bud didn’t yield these attempts, and thoughts of supervisors such as Harris, Bobbitt and Charters became the mainstream of that age. These people, trusted in their scientific researches and supported by their executive authority, disseminated bureaucratic and supervisory point of view and propagated the necessity of a central and unified curriculum for school principals, teachers and even education experts. It seems that the birth of the field of curriculum studies was in fact the birth of the idea of a centralized or a national curriculum.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • educational supervision
  • Curriculum
  • Franklin Bobbitt
  • Harold Rugg
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دوره 17، شماره 64 - شماره پیاپی 64
با تمرکز بر کوششهای نظرورزانه
خرداد 1401
صفحه 157-188
  • تاریخ دریافت: 24 تیر 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 23 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 06 آذر 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 06 آذر 1400