شناسایی دانش ضمنی معلمان زبان انگلیسی دوره دوم متوسطه از روش های ارزشیابی عینی: یک مطالعه پدیدارنگاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، ئانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

یادگیری، آموزش و غنی‌سازی تجربیات معلمان باعث افزایش و بهبود سرمایه فکری سازمان مدرسه می‌باشد، افزایش مستمر دانش همراه با افزایش آگاهی نسبت به دانش روز، معلم را در فرآیند ارزشیابی کمک می‌کند. هدف این‌مقاله شناسایی دانش ضمنی معلمان زبان انگلیسی دوره‌ دوم متوسطه از روش‌های ارزشیابی عینی است. این‌مطالعه به صورت کیفی انجام گرفته شد و روش به‌کارگرفته شده در این‌مطالعه پدیدارنگاری (تفسیری) می‌باشد. مشارکت‌کنندگان در مقاله حاضر شامل کلیه معلمان زبان انگلیسی دوره دوم متوسطه آموزش‌و‌پرورش شهرستان شهریار که در سال تحصیلی 97-98 مشغول به تدریس بوده‌اند، است. تعداد کل معلمان این‌دوره در این سال 75 نفر (48 نفر معلم زن و 27نفر معلم مرد) می‌باشد. نمونه‌گیری در این‌مقاله با رویکرد نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و روش انتخاب موارد مطلوب و تا سرحد اشباع صورت گرفت؛ لذا مواردی انتخاب شدند که تجربه کافی در زمینه ارزشیابی عینی داشتند. در این‌مقاله، نمونه ما 18 معلم زبان انگلیسی دوره دوم متوسطه (11نفر معلم زن و 7 نفر معلم مرد) بود. از حضور در کلاس‌های درس مدارس و مشاهده مستقیم عملکرد و رویه‌های به‌کار‌گرفته‌شده توسط معلمان، به دلیل عدم تمایل معلمان و ممانعت مدیران مدارس، صرف نظر شد و تنها به بیان آشکار این‌دانش  از طریق انجام مصاحبه با معلمان بسنده شد. این‌مشارکت‌کنندگان، مورد مصاحبه نیمه ‌ساختاریافته قرار‌گرفتند و اظهارات آنان با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون، تحلیل گردید. تحلیل داده‌های حاصل از مصاحبه نشان داد که دانش ضمنی معلمان از روش های ارزشیابی عینی، میزان قابل توجهی از دانش ارزشیابی ضمنی معلمان را شکل می دهد و اعتماد زیادی به این نوع ارزشیابی و آزمون‌های مرتبط به آن وجود دارد. در این‌مقاله به این نتیجه رسیده شد که. میزان دانش ضمنی آن‌ها از روش های ارزشیابی سنتی که بخش بزرگی از آن ارزشیابی به وسیله آزمون های عینی است، میزان قابل قبولی است. معلمان از میزان استفاده و مناسبت استفاده از ارزشیابی عینی با توجه به موقعیت و نوع دانش آموزان و کلاس درس اطلاعات خوبی داشتند. از نظر آن‌ها در ارزشیابی عینی عدالت درباره دانش‌آموزان بهتر و بیشتر رعایت می‌شود و قضاوت در رابطه با دانش آموزان صحیح‌تر صورت می‌گیرد. آن‌ها به صورت تجربی و آکادمیک از روش ارزشیابی عینی اطلاعات قابل توجهی دارند. به عقیده این‌معلمان دانش‌آموزان نیز با این‌ نوع روش ارزشیابی بیشتر خوگرفته‌اند و این نوع ارزشیابی را مورد قبول و توجه قرار می‌دهند و برای آن اهمیت قائل هستند. دانش ضمنی شرکت‌کنندگان در سه حوزه شناخته‌شده برای این‌دانش که شامل دانش ضمنی فردی، دانش میان‌فردی و سازمانی است، مورد توجه قرار گرفت. معلم نیازمند به‌روز‌شدن و بالا‌بردن اطلاعات شخصی و فراگیری پیوسته است. مسئولان و برنامه‌ریزان درسی و آموزشی باید دانش معلمان را از لحاظ دانش رسمی و ضمنی مورد سنجش قرار دهند. این‌مقاله بر آن شد تا به دلیل حائز اهمیت بودن دو مقوله دانش ضمنی و ارزشیابی عینی، به هر دوی آن‌ها بپردازد. تا کنون پژوهشی از تلفیق این دو مورد صورت نگرفته‌است. تعداد اندکی از پژوهش‌ها در زمینه دانش ضمنی و ارزشیابی، با روش پدیدارنگاری (تفسیری) انجام شده‌است. مقاله حاضر به جهت استفاده از این‌روش اطلاعات نابی را از دنیای ذهنی دبیران استخراج کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Tacit Knowledge of High School English Language Teachers of Objective Evaluation Methods: A Phenomenological Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • shadi nosrati 1
  • mahbobeh khosravi 2
  • mostafa Ghaderi 2
1 Department of Curriculum Planning, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabae'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Learning, and enriching teachers' experiences improve the intellectual capital of the school organization. Continuous improvement of knowledge, along with increased awareness of up-to-date knowledge, helps the teacher in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to analyze the tacit knowledge of high school English language teachers of objective evaluation methods that its method is interpretive phenomenology. The research population includes selected high school English language teachers of Shahriyar city in the academic year 2018-2019. The number of high school English language teachers in this year were 75 persons (48 female and 27 male). This study is based on the purposeful sampling of selecting the desirable cases and until saturation eighteen teachers (7 males and 11 females) were selected in which we would continue sampling to reach cases which no new information would be obtained. Therefore, the cases were selected who had sufficient experience in the field of objective evaluation. In this study, school attendance classes and direct observation of teachers 'performance and procedures were abandoned due to teachers' reluctance and obstruction of school principals, and only their explicit expression was sufficient through interviews with teachers. The data were collected from teachers through semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by content analysis method. The validity and reliability of the instrument were verified using reliability, portability, verifiability and reliability. Analysis of the data obtained from the interview showed that a significant amount of teachers' tacit evaluation knowledge is formed by objective evaluation and these teachers have great confidence in this type of evaluation and related tests. The results of the analysis of the interviews show that most of the teachers participating in this study think objective evaluation is more important than other types of evaluation and consider it is necessary to do it in the classroom. They have significant empirical and academic knowledge of objective evaluation methods. According to the opinion of these teachers, students are more accustomed to this type of evaluation method and accept and pay attention to this type of evaluation. One of the disadvantages of this type of evaluation is the timing of the tests and their correction by the teacher. The tacit knowledge of the participants in the three areas recognized for this knowledge, which includes individual tacit knowledge, interpersonal and organizational knowledge is noteworthy. The biggest problem for teachers with tacit knowledge is that they do not share it with their colleagues which leads to a lack of expansion of their tacit knowledge. The teachers need to keep up to date and keep up with personal information and continuous learning principles. curriculum planners should evaluate teachers' knowledge in terms of formal and tacit knowledge. This research studied both of tacit knowledge and objective evaluation, both of which are important. So far no research has been done on the combination of them. A few of studies in the field of tacit knowledge and evaluation have been performed by the method of phenomenology (interpretation). In order to use this method, the present study extracted pure information from the mental world of teachers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : "Tacit knowledge"
  • "Teachers"
  • "Objective Evaluation"
  • "Methods"
  • "High School"
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